'New Tired light' and the CMB

Introduction

We have already seen how light is redshifted as it passes through the plasma clouds of Intergalactic space. Photons are absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons as they pass through the plasma clouds. Both on absorption and re-emission of the photon the electron will recoil.

Thus, some of the energy of the photon is lost to the electron.

Since the photon has lost energy, its frequency must also reduce (E = hf).

Since the frequency of the photon is now less, the wavelength, λ, will increase (c = fλ).

The photon has been redshifted.

But what of the energy transferred to the electrons when they recoil? This is given off as a secondary photons and forms the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background radiation). The CMB is often cited as being the 'proof' of the Big Bang theory, the radiation left over as the echo of the Big Bang. But it is not as easy as that. Regardless of your beliefs as to how the Universe started, one piece of experimental observation has to be explained - that is, in redshift, the photons of light have a longer wavelength on arrival than when they set off. This means that photons of light have less energy on arrival than when they set off from a distant galaxy.

Where did this energy go?

In the theory of the expanding universe you will get all sorts of nonsense in an attempt to explain it, but they can't explain it really.

In 'New Tired light' we say that the energy lost by the photons in being redshifted is given given off as the CMB.

The above diagram shows how it works. Light emitted by the distant galaxy travels to Earth and is redshifted as it passes through the plasma cloud. The energy lost by this light is re-radiated as secondary, scattered, radiation by the electrons in the plasma cloud. When we add up all this secondary radiation due to all the plasma clouds and galaxies in the Universe, we get the CMB. It is for this reason that the CMB is homogeous - basically the same everywhere we look.

What evidence do we have for this?

Firstly, we can calculate the expected wavelength of this radiation and show that it is microwave.

Secondly, We can calculate the wavelength at which the intensity of the CMB radiation will 'peak' and we find that it agrees extremely well with measurements.

Thirdly, we expect the plasma clouds to show up as 'clumps' in the CMB with the nearer of the clouds appearing bigger than those further away. When we look at the CMB we find that there are small variations in it. In the Big Bang Theory, these 'clumps' are said to be at the begiining of the Universe and form the 'seeds' from which the galaxies and so on are formed. However, a team of international scientists have found that the larger of the clumps in the CMB are following the Solar system around. This means that they cannot be at the begining of the Universe - as stated in the Expanding Universe theory but they must be 'local'. However. this is what one expects in 'New Tired light'. The nearer the plasma cloud, the larger it looks - and one would expect some apparent 'movement' from a 'local' object.

Lets look at this in more detail.

**i) Calculation of the Wavelengths of the
Secondary Photons.**

It can be shown that the wavelength of the secondary photon emitted depends upon the wavelength of the incoming photon and is given by:

wavelength of CMB photon = 2mλ^{2}c/h

Where 'm' is the mass of the electron in the plasma, 'λ' is the wavelength of the incoming photon, 'c' the speed of light and 'h' the lanck constant.

Light,
typically of wavelength 5x10^{-7}m produces secondary radiation of
wavelength 0.21 metre. It is known that the CMB intensity curve peaks at a
wavelength of 2.1 mm and these secondary photons, in the 'New Tired light' Theory will
be produced by incident photons of wavelength 5x10^{-8}m. These are in
the Ultra Violet range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Thus the secondary photons produced are in the microwave region and consistent with experimental results.

**ii)
Calculation of the Wavelength at Which the Intensity of the CMB Curve Peaks.**

In determing our expression for the Hubble constant we assumed that the electrons were at rest. Looking at our expression for the CMB photon wavelength, we see that as the energy of the incoming photon increases the energy of the CMB photon produced also increases. Unless something else comes into play this increasing trend would continue forever. However, we know that the CMB curve does not keep increasing forever. It reaches a peak at a wavelength of 2.1mm and then reduces again. How does 'New Tired light' explain this peak?

In out theory, we considered the electrons at 'rest' as this is standard practice in these types of interaction. This is true for small electron velocities but the effect 'breaks down' when the velocities become large. The effect we describe her is only valid if the photon energy is less than the kinetic energy of the electron. The photon loses energy to the electron (causing it to be redshifted) and the excess energy of the elctron is emitted as a CMB photon.

If the energy of the incoming photon is less than the kinetic energy of the electron then the photon actually gains energy from the electron - no CMB photon will be produced in this case.

This
point, where the energy of the incoming photon is equal to the average kinetic
energy of the electron in the plasma, marks the watershed in the CMB curve. It
is at this point that the CMB curve will peak. We know that hte temperature
of the plasma clouds in Intergalactic space is between 10^{5 }and 10^{6}
Kelvin.

We know that the average kinetic energy of an electron at these temperatures is given by 3kT/2 - where k is the Boltzmann constant.

There will be a 'critical frequency' marked by the point where the incident photon energy (E = hf) is equal to the average kinetic energy of the electrons in the plasma and we can calculate the wavelengths of the CMB photons associated with these critical frequencies of the incoming photons. these wavelengths will correspond to the wavelength at which the CMB curve peaks.

We
find that the range of temperatures (10^{5 }and 10^{6} Kelvin)
give rise CMB photons with wavelengths in the range = 7.3mm to 0.73^{ }mm.

Experiment tells us that the peak lies at 2.1 mm - so again out 'New Tired light' Theory is consistent with experimental results.

I
am sure that the casual observer is starting to be a little sceptical of the Big
Bang theory by now as there are just too many 'coincidences' between the
measured results and the electron. As we saw in the theory, the Hubble constant
is given by 2nhr/m and since n lies somewhere between 0.1 and 10 this
relationship is consistent with the meausred value of 2.1x10^{-18} s^{-1}.
Now we see that not only is the secondary radiation given out by our recoiling
electrons in the microwave region, the wavelength where the CMB intensity curve
peaks is related to the temperature of the plasma clouds in IG space. How can
this be so in the Big Bang Theory if these quantities are not supposed to be
related to the electron in any way?