Tired Light and Quasars
Quasars are extremely bright objects having huge redshifts. In Big Bang Codsmology, their huge redshifts suggest that they are a very long way away and yet this should make them dim, not bright. Arp and others have done a great deal of observational work on Quasars and shown them to be associated with Seyfert galaxies. In the Big Bang theory, Quasars are said to be very bright objects at the rim of the Universe and gravitationally 'lensed' by the 'host' galaxy - but this would make them unbelievably bright. Worse still for the Big Bang Theory, in January 2005, an international group of astronomers claim to have found a quasar whose redshift places it at a distance of several billions of light years away actually inside a galaxy that is only a few hundred million light year away. So the Big Bang interpretation must be wrong. Arp suggests that the Quasars are actually 'new matter' being created and ejected by the host galaxy itself, their huge redshifts being due to something happening within the Quasar itself. This leads to problems such as how is the 'new matter' made and "what is the mechanism by which the light is 'intrinsically' redshifted". Worse still, the light emitted by Quasars 'varies' in brightness and scientists look at the light arriving from the 'images' of a Quasar at either side of the host galaxy. By looking at by how much the light curve of one Quasar lags behind the other they can determine a value for the Hubble constant. If the Quasars are 'ejections' then the 'blobs' of new matter ejected either way must continue to vary with a constant phase lag and also a phase lag that is linked to the Hubble constant. Whilst I am fully convinced by Arp's experimental results, I am not happy with his 'new matter' interpretation. Particularly as the value of the Hubble constant found from Quasar light curves is equal to 'hr/m per cubic metre of space' for the electron. No, we must look for Tired Light and explain Quasars in terms of an interaction of photons of light with the electrons in the space around the host galaxy.
But why should a galaxy emit a stream of electrons at either side?
We know that galaxies have a Black Hole at their centre. A Black Hole is a huge collapsed star that 'drags in' any matter getting too close. What is proposed here is that Seyfert galaxies have a pair of Binary Black Holes at their centre. The Black Holes would rotate about the axis through the centre of the pair.
The diagram shows the gravitational field around a pair of Binary Black Holes. Particles falling towards the pair of Black Holes would follow a path identical to a field line.
Usually, distant matter falling into these binary black holes would be attracted in their general direction and, when they came close, would be devoured by whichever black hole was nearest at that time.
However, matter originally lying on the axis of rotation of the binary pair would follow a different path. This matter would accelerate towards the pair but when it reached the binary Black Holes it would pass straight through and be ejected from the other side. The gravitational fields of the pair cancel in the middle of the space between them (we have a neutral point marked 'X' on the diagram). We must then ask the question,"what would happen to a particle lying on the axis of rotation of the binary Black Holes?” The answer is that it would oscillate. It would be attracted to the binary pair, and accelerate. In the middle of the space between the binary pair, there would be no resultant gravitation force and so the particles momentum would carry it through. On emerging from the other side, there would then be a resultant gravitational force retarding it. The particle would then keep oscillating with the binary pair at the centre of it's oscillation. It would be a bit like a mass between two stretched springs. It performs simple harmonic Motion (but with the black holes, the magnitude of the force is not proportional to the displacent).
Having just fallen through a pair of black holes, you would expect the particles velocity to be relativistic when it emerges!
These particles, trapped on the central gravitational field lines, would crash into each other as they oscillated up and down and therefore become ionised. However, Paricles initially inside the galaxy would remain 'inside' the galaxy. Their amplitude of oscillation would not increase and so they would 'fall' into the pair of black Holes and come out at the other side where they would be retarded and come to rest an equal distance at the other side to 'fall' back indside again and the process repeat itself. Whilst this may well give an active galactic nucleus it will not give us the 'ejections'. For that we need a dust cloud or a Hydrogen cloud to pass near the galaxy. Again any particles dragged into the galaxy off the central axis would eventually end up being devoured by one or other of the Black holes. However, particles falling into the combination along the central gravitational field lines, would again oscillate but this time the amplitude of the oscillations would be so large that their oscillations would take them in and out of the galaxy itself. They would appear to be 'ejections' but would be ionised particles oscillating in and out of the galaxy itself.
This gives us our plasma for the photons of light from a bright object behind the galaxy to interact with.
The diagram shows the seyfert galaxy and the ions oscillating along the central gravitational field lines. A Quasar behind the galaxy is 'lensed' and two images are formed. The photons of light are redshifted by the Tired Light mechanism as described Here.
1) How can the Quasar be so bright and yet have such a huge redshift?
The Quasar has such a huge redshift because the photons pass through the ions in the oscillating streams of particles. The Quasar is bright because it is near. Big Bang Codsmologists associate 'distance' with 'redshift'. Since it has a large redshift they say it is a long way away. In Tired Light cosmology we say it has a large redshift because it has passed through the streams of oscillating particles.
2) Why do some Quasars appear to display 'proper motion'.
Proper motion is where the Quasar actually appear to move outwards from the galactic centre. In Tired Light this proper motion is due to the motion of the ions as they oscillate. We have all seen images appear to move when light passes over hot surfaces or fires. Well it is the same here.
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© Copyright November 2003 Lyndon Ashmore. All rights reserved
© Copyright Revised 23rd February, 2005 Lyndon E Ashmore.