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Ashmore's 'New Tired Light' Theory

There are many problems with the theory of the expanding Universe and so this theory puts forward the view that the Universe is static (not expanding) and offers a new approach to explain the redshifts in the light from distant galaxies.

Photons of light from distant galaxies have a longer wavelength on arrival than when they set off. For a particular wavelength, galaxies twice as far away undergo twice the increase in wavelength. This is the experimental evidence - the rest is down to how scientists interpret these results.

In the theory of the expanding Universe this increase in wavelength is explained in terms of space itself expanding and 'stretching' the photons as it does so. We are told that a galaxy twice as far away is moving away from us at twice the speed.

In this 'New Tired Light' theory, I explain the increase in wavelength as being due to photons of light interacting, or colliding, with the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space and thus losing energy. The more interactions they make, the more energy they lose and the lower their frequency becomes. As the frequency reduces the wavelength increases and thus the photons are cuál es la estructura de un texto. Photons of light from galaxies twice as far away travel twice as far through the intergalactic medium, undergo twice as many collisions with the electrons, lose twice as much energy, have their frequency reduced by twice as much and their wavelength increased by twice as much. Hence galaxies twice as far away have twice the redshift. Doesn't this make more sense than an expanding Universe stretching the photons?

__ But How Do Photons Interact With The Electrons In Intergalactic (IG) Space?__

To Answer this we must look at how light travels through a transparent medium such as glass. In a vacuum light travels at 3x10^{8}m/s. In a medium such as glass the light is slowed down. The reason for this is that the photons that make up the light are continually absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons in the atoms of the glass. The photon comes along, it is absorbed by the atom, the system of electrons is set into oscillation and then a new photon, identical to the first is emitted. However, this process is not instantaneous as there is a delay between the absorption of the old photon and the emission of the new one. The result of all the delays suffered by the photons as they pass through the glass is that the average speed of the photon is reduced. Photons travel at the speed of light in a vacuum ( 3x10^{8}m/s) between interactions with the atoms but their overall average speed is reduced because of the delays suffered whilst interacting with the atoms.

Electrons in the plasma of IG space can oscillate too. Long range coulomb forces act between the electrons and so, superposed on top of their random thermal motion, they can perform Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). Electrons that can oscillate can absorb and re-emit photons of light. In the same way as photons of light travel through other transparent materials such as glass, the photons of light travelling through IG space are continually absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons in the plasma. Again, there is a delay between absorption of the old photon and the re-emission of the new one. However, there is one subtle difference. In glass, the atoms and electrons are fixed within the whole glass block - they cannot recoil. In the plasma of IG space the electrons are not firmly fixed and so they recoil on absorption and re-emission.

On absorption, not only is the electron in the plasma is set into oscillation but it recoils as well. Some of the energy of the photon is transferred to the recoiling electron. The same happens on re-emission of the new photon. Again some of the energy of the photon is lost to the recoiling electron. The photon loses energy on both absorption of the old photon and emission of the new photon. Since energy has been lost to the recoiling electron, the newly emitted photon has less energy than the one absorbed in the first place. Since:

energy of photon, E = (Plank Constant, h)x(frequency, f)

or **E = hf**

If the energy of the photon has reduced, the frequency must also reduce

Since:

(wave speed, c) = (frequency, f)x(wavelength, λ)

or **c = fλ****.**

If the frequency is less then the wavelength must increase considering that c, the velocity of light, is a constant.

The photon undergoes an increase in wavelength every time it is absorbed and re-emitted by an electron in the plasma of IG space. It is redshifted.

I calculated the energy lost to the recoiling electron from the photon and from this found the increase in wavelength suffered by each photon. It turns out that, no matter what the initial wavelength of the photon was, they all undergo the same increase in wavelength at each interaction with an electron.

Increase in wavelength at each interaction, ** δλ = hm/c**

On their journey through IG space, photons will many many such interactions where they are absorbed and re-emitted each time (photons of light make, on average, one collision every 70,000 light year). Each time they will lose energy and be redshifted a little more.'

Total shift in wavelength, **Δλ = N****δλ**

Where, Δλ is the total shift in wavelength, N is the total number of interaction made by the photon on its journey and δλ is the increase in wavelength at each interaction.

The redshift-distance relationship becomes:

Photons of light from galaxies twice as far away, travel twice as far through the plasma of IG space, make twice as many collision, lose twice as much energy and therefore undergo twice the redshift. This is the Hubble law.

However, it is not as simple as that. With redshift, we find that the longer the wavelength, λ, the greater the shift in wavelength, Δλ. In fact, experiment tells us that the shift in wavelength, Δλ is proportional to the wavelength, λ.

i.e. **Δλ α λ**** **

or ** ****Δλ = zλ**** **

where z is a constant called the 'redshift'.

we usually write this as:

redshift, **z = **** ** **Δλ/λ**** **

For a particular galaxy, the redshift, z is a constant for all wavelengths.

This means that red light, which has a long wavelength, undergoes a greater shift in wavelength than blue light, which has a short wavelength, so that the ratio, Δλ/ λ has the same value for both.** **

In the 'New Tired Light' Theory, the number of collisions made by each photon depends upon its collision cross section, σ. This represents the probability of a photon being absorbed by the electron. We know the photoabsorption collision cross section for a photon - electron interaction from experiments carried out by the interaction of low energy X rays with matter and it depends upon the radius of the electron and the wavelength of the photon.

collision cross section, σ = 2x(classical radius of electron, r)x(wavelength of photon, λ)

or **σ = 2r λ**

The number of collisions the photon makes on its journey depends both on the probability of the photon 'bumping' into an electron and upon how densely packed the electrons are in IG space. The greater either of these quantities are then the more likely it is for a photon to bump into an electron and be absorbed and re-emitted. The average distance between collisions is called the 'mean free path' and this can be calculated.

mean free path = (nσ)^{-1}

0r **Mean free path = (****2nr λ) ^{-1}**

Where 'n' is the number of electrons in each cubic metre of IG space.

**Simple determination Of The Hubble Constant (valid for nearby galaxies)**

The number of collisions, N made by the photon in travelling from a galaxy a distance 'd' away is simply the distance 'd' divided by the average distance between each collision (the mean free path).

Number of collisions made by photon, N = d/ (2nr λ)^{-1}

or **N = 2nrd λ **

As we have seen before, the shift in wavelength, δλ at each interaction is the same for all wavelengths and equal to h/mc. The Total shift in wavelength experienced by the photon during its entire journey is found by multiplying the total number of collisions, N by the shift in wavelength at each collision.

Total shift in wavelength,** ** Δλ = Nδλ

Or Δλ = ( 2nrd λ)(h/mc) .....................(1)

The redshift Z is defined as:

z = Δλ/λ

Rearranging formula (1) gives:

** z = Δλ/λ = (2nhr/mc)d**

This relationship between the redshift, z and the distance d to the galaxy is actually the end result as it explains the experimental evidence - that redshift is proportional to distance. Unfortunately, in the theory where redshift is explained as an 'expansion' astrophysicists take this one hypothetical step further and introduce a 'velocity' v. Remember though that this velocity does not exist in the experimental results, it is just their interpretation of the data. To compare our relation for redshift with theirs we must compare results.

In the expanding universe, the redshift was originally said to be due to a Doppler Effect - the galaxy moving away with a velocity, v stretched the waves as it did so.

The interpretation they put on the experimental results was:

**z = Δλ/λ= v/c **

or ** v = cz**

** ** and that ** v = Hd**

Where H is a constant of proportionality known as the Hubble constant.

This gives us ** z = Hd/c**

Comparing this with the 'New Tired Light' redshift relation gives:

**H = 2nhr/m**

We know the values of h (6.63x10^{-34} Js), r (2.818x10^{-15} m) and m (9.11x10^{-31} kg). Published values of n show that it is in the range 0.1 to 10 electrons per cubic metre. Inserting these values into the relationship for H tell us that the theory predicts H to lie in the range (0.41 to 41)x10^{-18} s^{-1 }.^{ }The HST (Hubble Space Telescope) project puts measured values of H in the range 72 +/- 8 km/s per Mpc. In SI units this is 2.3x10^{-18} s^{-1}, which supports the values predicted by this New Tired Light Theory. The large range of predicted values is the result of experimental uncertainties rather than any flaw in the theory. For the theory to predict a value of H = 72 km/s per Mpc requires n to be 0.6 m^{-3 }which is well within the range of published values of 0.1 to 10 m^{-3}.

Interestingly, the value of 'hr/m' itself when converted to SI units has the value of 2.1x10^{-18} m^{3}s^{-1}. Supernovae data, in astronomical units give H = 64 km/s per Mpc which, when converted to SI units is 2.1x10^{-18} s^{-1}. We see that supernovae data gives a value of the Hubble constant equal in magnitude to 'hr/m' itself. This is an interesting 'coincidence' and leads to several strange implications.

One of these 'strange' implications is that if we are to believe in the expanding Universe, then we must believe that the age of the Universe is related to the electron! Scientists base the age of the Universe on the 'Hubble time' which is just the reciprocal of the Hubble constant. The Hubble time (1/H) is the time since the Universe 'began' if one ignores the effects of gravity and 'acceleration'. Since experimental results are telling us that the magnitude of H is equal to hr/m for the electron then the magnitude of the age of the universe must be the same as m/hr!

i.e. The expanding Universe theory tells us that the age of the universe has the same magnitude as m/hr.

Another of these strange implications is that if we take one metre of space, we find that every second this length is supposed to be increasing at a rate of hr/m metres each and every second! Why should the metre length be expanding at this rate if the expansion has nothing to do with the electron?

These results are nonsense and yet experiment tell us that it must be so - but only if we believe in an expanding universe!

It is the theory that is wrong. The Universe is not expanding. Redshifts are due to photons interacting with the electrons in the plasma of IG space. That is why there is a relationship between the Hubble constant and the parameters of the electron! This is known as 'Ashmore's Paradox'.

**Full determination of the Hubble Constant For all Galaxies Near and Far.**

The determination of H given above included an approximation. I assumed there that the collision cross-section of the photon was constant throughout its entire journey. This is clearly not the case. The reason being that the collision cross-section is proportional to the wavelength and each time a photon interacts with an electron it is redshifted and undergoes an increase in wavelength. That is, as the photon travels along and is absorbed and re-emitted by the electrons in the plasma of intergalactic space, the wavelength will get bigger and bigger and so the chances of it making a collision will also become bigger and bigger. The distance travelled by the photon between collisions becomes less and less. The rate at which the photon is redshifted becomes greater and greater as the photon travels further and further.

Including this into our calculation gives us the full redshift distance relation of:

**z = e ^{(Hd/c)} - 1 **

Note that for 'small' distances this function reduces to z = Hd/c and that the Hubble constant still has the same value as before, namely:

** H = 2nhr/m**

**FAQ's.**

**How do the photons travel in a straight line if they are constantly absorbed and re-emitted?**

This 'New Tired Light' Theory utilises the Mossbauer effect in determining redshifts and so this is not a problem. Previous New Tired Light Theories used Compton scatter to create a shift in wavelength but this type of scatter only produces a redshift if the photon is emitted at an angle to its original direction. With Compton scatter there is no redshift in the forward direction.

Here I treat space as a transparent medium and apply the same physics to IG space as we know happens in transparent materials such as glass. In travelling through glass, light is continually absorbed and re-emitted and yet continues in a straight line. The 'principal of least time' ensures that this is so. The Mossbauer effect is a momentum effect and so linear momentum must be conserved. Electrons in a plasma have Coulomb forces acting between them and thus act collectively. Any tendency for the electron to stray from the original direction of the photon will be restricted by the other electrons.

**Will the random motion of the electrons affect disperse the photons?**

In any scattering process, the motion of the scatterer is assumed zero. Since the photons undergo many scattering events, any random motion of the scatterer cancels over a number of scattering events. In any case, the motion of the electrons in the plasma of IG space during absorption and re-emission is negligible when compared with the distances involved between scattering events.

**Will this constant absorption and re-emission of photons cause the absorption lines to 'spread' or 'broaden?'**

The answer is yes, it will! - and this is found by observation too. The point is that, as to whether a photon collides or not, is down to probability - and so they will not all experience the same number of collisions. Some will collide more often than the mean number of collisions, and some will collide less often. This causes the lines to broaden. Using this theory we can predict the amount of spread in the lines and we find that it agrees with observation. See here for a full discussion.

First published 2003 Home

© Copyright November 2003 Lyndon Ashmore. All rights reserved amended Feb 2005, May 2010